IvyPanda. In other words, even if institutions have been constructed in a particular way on the basis of very specific preferences, actors still have to work within these institutional structures subsequently. A social contract theory has played major role in enhancing political democracy in western political theory. According to Dunn (1993, p28), Westerners have been in a position to exercise their democracy as citizens with rights to make their own decision when voting. Cardinal Richelieu imposed direct royal administration on France. Christo, B., 2003. It was seen as an intellectual expression to European political thoughts where by kings, vassal and lords, were considered in formation of political, legal and military affairs (Rousseau 1987, p16). In 1647, he was sent to the prestigious Westminster School in London under the sponsorship of Alexander Popham, a member of Parliament and his father‘s former commander. The power imbalance, held by law enforcement, is part of the contract … In the first section of Common Sense, Thomas Paine characterizes government as he sees it, which is still an influential viewpoint. Tolerated every religion McClelland, S., 1996. September 10, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/role-of-the-social-contract-in-western-political-theory/. To illustrate this concept, Paine supports his idea with a hypothetical island. Social Contract theory is important because it revolutionized the way that people understood the role of subjects and kings. Cookies Policy, This essay on The Importance of Social Contract Theory in Modern Society was written and submitted by your fellow student. "The Importance of Social Contract Theory in Modern Society." He developed his Social Contract Theory in his famous book “Two Treatises on Civil Government (1690)”. Social contract theory is based on the idea of a contractual agreement between the individual and the state, under which the power of the sovereign is justified by a hypothetical social contract in which the people agree to obey in all matters in return for a guarantee of peace and security, which they lack in the warlike "state of nature" posited to exist before the contract is made. For full functionality of this site it is necessary to enable JavaScript. Social and Political Philosophy: a Contemporary Introduction. If you are the copyright owner of this paper and no longer wish to have your work published on IvyPanda. Copyright © 2020 IPL.org All rights reserved. Unfortunately, your browser is too old to work on this site. IvyPanda. Social contract also appeared as a means for better understanding of the public policy which existed in the works of John Rawls, an American political philosopher. Published his most influential work Leviathan which provided a philosophical justification for a strong central political authority. In 18th century Jean Jacques Rousseau, offers an explanation regarding social contract theory which says, humanity in nature’s state is not wretched as depicted by Hobbes but is happy and independent. Western countries have fully benefitted politically from social contract. You work together as a neighborhood to protect the homes of one another. The first modern philosopher to articulate a detailed contract theory was Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), who contended that people in a state of nature ceded their individual rights to create sovereignty, retained by the state, in return for their protection and a more functional society, so social contract evolves out o… Some investors do look to acquire stock in socially responsible corporations, but, on the whole, investors purchase stock on the expectations of turning a profit. Different activists gave different terms as far as social contract is concerned. Another association exists as an agreement between the society and the government in impacting the political theories (Jones 2002, p89). Jones, T., 2002. Citizens agree to surrender absolute freedom and obey laws in exchange for the greater security and prosperity that come from living within an organized society. Therefore, social contract has played major role in shaping western political theory. The Theory Explained. 2019. It is hard to fabricate the effect that social contract theory has had, both within philosophy, and on the extensive culture (Azcentralcom, 2017). Social contract created political theory by capturing the concept that individual obedience is not necessary when making a congruent decision; hence it is necessary for the citizens to make decisions based on the individuals’ choice but not through political influence (Rouseau 1987, p19). At C… States were in conflict because there was no sovereign state. Social contract was developed in early western political thought. Social contract is an intellectual tool aimed at explaining necessary relationships between individual and their government (Christman 2002, p26). Social contract theories see the relationship of power between state and citizen as a consensual exchange. The answer is obviously to find socially CSR projects that can be advantageous to the organization; however, many believe that this defeats the aim of carrying responsible business practices. • Shareholder Resistance to CSR In Social contract, people gave up their rights with the expectation that others would do the same for them. It has often been argued that, fundamentally, the absence of written constitution in UK, is the by-product of a historical coincidence; as typically throughout history, revolutions, wars & political events were the primary cause of constitutional change; e.g. Christman (2002, p.28) further argued that, “this motivated the social contract theorist to look for ways on how they can demonstrate in different modes, how a rational individual would wish to give up his/her freedom to obtain political order benefits.” The paper addresses the manner in which social contract impacted western political theory. How Locke's Social Contract Theory Influenced Others Locke's philosophies and influence on modern society were far-reaching, even extending to the formation of the American Colonies into the bastion of freedom the country is today. Though obedience goes hand in hand with state governance, not all political decisions require being obedience (McClelland 1996, p163). Social construction Giddens (1989) defined sociology as the academic discipline concerned with the study of human social life. Meanwhile, business ethics has a great role for the development of enterprises. Other people obey the law because they are forced due to fear of punishment but not because they are obliged to. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/role-of-the-social-contract-in-western-political-theory/. Individuals, through corporations, have the right to amass wealth, but morality dictates that they do so ethically. To describe this conflict in the most general of terms, it was a clash between the King and his supporters, the Monarchists, who preferred the traditional authority of a monarch, and the Parliamentarians, most notably led by Oliver Cromwell, who demanded more power for the quasi-democratic institution of Parliament. It has played a role of identifying the useful government to the western communities and the best state of governance to hold. We utilize security vendors that protect and 1. Western political theorists have predominantly been portraying the exchange and interdependence between their constitution and government through social contract model (McClelland 1996, p182). It is also very much true that such rule of law varies from one society to another society, a particular law which is supreme in one society may not be supreme in another society. Specifically for law enforcement, social contract theory is important to justify the power that law enforcement can exert over the population as a whole (Evans and MacMillan, 2014). Individuals have framed rights and self interest as they make their own congruent decisions. Institutions do not act. Businesses have an ethical obligation toward members of a given society. John Locke’… His characterization is perhaps best summed up in his own succinct words: “government even in its best state is but a necessary evil.” These words speak measures to his attitude towards the fundamental nature of government—an attitude that shaped a political party in his time that has evolved over time with the core concept relatively intact. Consequently, government strength is derived from proper management of the social contract as evidenced in Rousseau’s social contract which is one of the major theories that molded the western political thoughts (Rousseau 1987, p29). Each individual has his or her own right. Social contracts have had an obligation of ensuring political authority based on individual rational and self interest consent (Cristo 2003, p.48). These business people do not understand this concept and do not fully understand the role of ethical in business. Everyone would agree to outlaw theft, fraud and murder, so these c… There are many who have embraced the concept over the years, including theorists … Social contract persisted being in use in United States of America, where by, social contract was argued to be succession rights in the southern before the emergency of civil war (Kelly & Boucher 1994, p.87). IvyPanda. we will assume that you agree to our New York, NY: Routeledge Publisher. "The Importance of Social Contract Theory in Modern Society." Some authors presented social contract as something which was historically in existence as debated on the collective bargain terms (Rousseau 1987, p30). According to Dunn (1993, p28), Westerners have been in a position to exercise their democracy as citizens with rights to make their own decision when voting. Social construction is a sociological concept, which refers to individuals or groups’ perceptions or ideas that are created through social and cultural practice. Dunn, J., 1993. London: Cambridge University press. Point 1: Being ethical in business strengthens the systems and relationships that support and sustain it This made them to compete with one another. Among the key objectives in businesses is the importance of giving back to society, a role that has come to be known as social responsibility. But why is there a need for a greater, real ethical responsibility? So one condition of rule of law that it should be embedded with morality and then only it would act as a strong yardstick to control the society. The Importance of Social Contract Theory in Modern Society. Minister Sully brought economic stability and financial growth Social contract changed the state of nature. The social contract is a concept in the philosophy of ethics and political science that has more recently been applied to the study of business ethics. Especially when social contract discriminates against women politically, terming them as unworthy and unable to make crucial political decisions. John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704), was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and known as the "Father of Classical Liberalism". It favors a large government, and does not place any real importance on the rights of those entering into the social contract with those in power. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must. After completing his studies there, he was admitted to Christ Church, Oxford in 1652. The Social Contract. Social contract moulds the western political theories, through contract of association, whereby, individuals sacrifice their liberty for the sake of others to join the community. Said monarchy is the effective to maintain order Women were looked down upon as they were regarded as people who needed not to participate in politics. What this means is that just as institutions are the result of the actions of actors, so post-institutional outcomes are the result of equivalent actions. Only actors act. Social contract has also impacted political theories as they were framed based on social contract theories. Social Contract Theory The importance of social contract theory demonstrates the perspective of a particular individual moral and political obligation that are highly relational to the contract or agreement relative to the condition of terms if they are acceptable in the society (Friend, 2004). Hobbes (2002, p.26) wrote that, “lt it ended to an establishment of state which a sovereign entity is creating laws which regulated interaction socially.” The state system which resulted from individual ceding their rights was without leadership (Christman 2002, p88). With social contract theory, citizens seek to find fair and just treatment in society. Copyright © 2021 - IvyPanda is a trading name of Edustream ... What the government does to hide the truth about food, sugar, and its relation to obesity is in direct violation of the Social Contract Theory. Being one of the most predominant speculations within political and moral theory throughout the history of. France IvyPanda. What’s your deadline? "The Importance of Social Contract Theory in Modern Society." London: Routledge. 10 September. However, society and its organisations have corrupted man 's better nature. A big question that intrigued the theorists of the social contract theory was, that how can people give away their freedom to a sovereignty in trade for some benefits? Learn about social contract theory and what some important thinkers from the 1600s onward had to say about it. A History of Western Political Thought. The aim of a social contract theory is to show that members of somesociety have reason to endorse and comply with the fundamental socialrules, laws, institutions, and/or principles of that society. Foremost in historical importance is the Theory of Social Contract. London: Routledge. Technologies LLC, a company registered in Wyoming, USA. These separation of powers as a lot of philosophers and specialists have told before is very important for the simple reason that Montesquieu mentioned very clearly “When legislative power is united with executive powers in a single person or in a single body there is no liberty, because one can fear that the same monarch or senate that makes tyrannical laws will execute them tyrannically”. On the Social Contract. It was thought that Social contract died after it was ridiculed by Bentham and Hume, though it has been in existence until twentieth century as an argument of rights of the state. Social contract attempts to explain the formation as well as maintenance of societies or states as a result of implied contract between individuals and groups. From the radical reformation period until mid eighteenth century, social contract idea dominated political thinking, which is evidence that political theories were derived from social contract theories. If the citizens derive from the government maximum benefits that is proportional to what government requires from them, the government acquires strength and legitimacy (Jones 2002, p.145). On the other hand, Vernon points out that, observers of the British constitution, discovered the key to the success of the British government, lies with its triumph in combining “freedom with stability” . The constitution could rule on the leader’s obligation and how they would administer their tasks to the lead. This view indicates companies can prosper by focussing on making profits rather than on troublesome and subjective ethical concerns. 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