(2) As we trace the development of pneumatology from the early Syriac fathers to the author of the Odes of Solomon, a consistent finding scholars have noted is the frequent use of the feminine gender in descriptions of the Holy Spirit. -----. van Oort, Johannes, ''The Holy Spirit as Feminine: Early Christian … In the early stages of modern scholarly studies, it was believed that some examples of the long-standing Greek practice of labeling Aramaic as "Syrian/Syriac", that are found in the "Cave of Treasures", can be attributed to Ephrem, but later scholarly analyses have shown that the work in question was written much later (c. 600) by an unknown author, thus also showing that Ephrem's original works still belonged to … The most exhaustive research on the early Syrian tradition in the West is Catholic scholar, Robert Murray; (3) in the Eastern Church it is Sebastian Brock. No the God in whose image we are created is reflected in both maleness and femaleness. In Syriac literature prior to the year 400, the Holy Spirit was most often understood to be feminine, referred to as “She”, because the noun for spirit, ruha, is grammatically feminine in Syriac (related to the Hebrew ruah), However, early Syriac writers did not present the Spirit as a feminine being, distinct from though not necessarily in opposition to a male God. Kateusz cites scholars of the early Syrian church such as Sebastian Brock, who basing their findings on their studies of the ancient baptism liturgy and of the other ch literature of Syriac church during its first four centuries, believe that in this time period the Holy Spirit was almost always envisioned as feminine. The Spirit in the NT. 'The Wings of the Spirit': Exploring Feminine Symbolism in Early Pneumatology. Acts of Thomas, section 121: Holy oil for anointing has been given to us and the Hidden Mystery of the Cross which has appeared in it, 1 H here … It … Much depends on the language we speak (the “culture” in which we live). The Holy Spirit is “feminine” and is referred to as a “she” in almost all early Syriac Christian writings. male) and that males are more in the image of God than females. Wisdom is equated with the Holy Spirit and both are considered to be feminine. Mark 10:21 (Syriac), etc "If you would be perfect, go sell what you possess, and take up your cross and follow me. Janet Martin Soskice, London, And in Syria, where for four hundred years the word Holy Spirit was ruha, a feminine word derived from the Hebrew ruach, and where the Holy Spirit was described as Mother, complementing the parental imagery of Father and Son in the Trinity, the association of feminine language with heresy led authors to assign masculine gender to the word—grammatical nonsense but evidence of the theological desire to … Luke 6:20 Blessed are the poor, for yours is the Kingdom of heaven. While the Hebrew word for spirit is feminine and the Greek word for spirit is neuter, those designations, of themselves, do not tell us sex or if we would use He, She, or It in English. Sebastian Brock in The Holy Spirit as feminine in early Syriac literature, examines the use of the feminine pronoun for the Holy Spirit in Syriac, and how this purely grammatical feature might have affected its role. The Syriac language (/ ˈ s ɪr i æ k /; Classical Syriac: ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ ‎ / Leššānā Suryāyā, Leshono Suryoyo), also known as Syriac Aramaic (Syrian Aramaic, Syro-Aramaic) and Classical Syriac (in its literary and liturgical form), is an Aramaic language that emerged during the first century AD from a local Aramaic dialect that was spoken in the ancient region of Osroene, centered in the city of Edessa.During the … A Study in Early Syriac Tradition, London, 1975, esp. February 2016; HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies 72(1) DOI: 10.4102/hts.v72i1.3225. Kateusz cites scholars of the early Syrian church such as Sebastian Brock, who basing their findings on their studies of the ancient baptism liturgy and of the other ch literature of Syriac church during its first four centuries, believe that in this time period the Holy Spirit was almost always envisioned as feminine. HOLY SPIRIT IS FEMININE – SHEKHINAH The Holy Spirit (Ruach Ha-Kadosh) is the manifested Glory of God all throughout the Old Testament and is seen after the outpouring of Holy Fire on Pentecost. ("Feminine Imagery for the Divine: … The early church mostly spoke Greek or Latin, ... as in Hebrew). Holy Spirit is referred to with the feminine pronoun in almost all early Syriac writings, though later writings refer to it in the masculine.) When one turns into the early Syriac period in search of a theology of the Holy Spirit, the primary difficulty that is met with is the lack of any proper treatise on the Holy Spirit. "The Holy Spirit as Feminine in Early Syriac Literature." In the Syriac tradition, from which we get the Maronites, Chaldean Catholics, and Syriac Catholics, the Holy Spirit is often referred to as “she” and is portrayed as playing a strong motherly role. The grammatically feminine aspect is strictly an Aramaic feature, it is not the case in Greek. Because of that, ‘it’ would be a better choice as he or she tend to contradict each other. The word for ‘spirit’ in Syriac, ruho (which is also the word for ‘wind’), is grammatically feminine. References to the Holy Spirit appear throughout Acts, for example Acts 1:5 and 8 stating towards the beginning: "For … Concerning the Church, the Syriac Orthodox Church believes the Church is the body of true believers in Christ, and that the Head of the Church is Our Lord God Jesus Christ. 5:3 Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the Kingdom of heaven. The word for ‘spirit’ in Syriac, ruho (which is also the word for ‘wind’), is grammatically feminine. 74–75 (73–88). These ancient Christians remind us that God is not a man (i.e. with a view to bring out the early Syriac theology of the Holy Spirit. Keywords: I-III CE, IV-VII CE, Holy Spirit, gender, feminine. 20 Cf. But such great saints as Ephrem (a Doctor of the Church) and Jacob of Sarug sure seemed to enjoy playing up the feminine qualities of … 2 Hence one understands how in early Christian tradition Christ is so often considered to be the child of mother Sophia or the Holy Spirit. 13:14 Put on our Lord Jesus Christ. What then are the early sources that are at our disposal? The spirit talks sometimes with a masculine and sometimes with a feminine voice; the word ruac ... Acts presents the Holy Spirit as the "life principle" of the early Church and provides five separate and dramatic instances of its outpouring on believers in 2:1–4, 4:28–31, 8:15–17, 10:44 and 19:6. The rabbis used the term shekhinah in reference to the glory of God filling the temple (2 Chronicles 7:1), his presence at the cloud (Exodus 14:19; 1 Kings 8:10–13), and his dwelling in the mountain ( Psalm 68:16 … They referred to the “womb of the Spirit” in their baptismal liturgy, as well as made other feminine references to the Spirit. The … St. Mary the Protectress Syriac Orthodox Community is located in Plymouth, Indiana. Sebastian Brock, The Luminous Eye. Three archaic prayers over the baptismal oil 1. This was not a concrete … (4) Bulgakov has said … In early Aramaic-Christian literature, the Holy Spirit is treated grammatically in the feminine, though later writings typically refer to it in the masculine. The fathers of the Syriac church at least sometimes spoke of the Spirit as Mother. "Reading between the Lines: Sarah and the Sacrifice of Isaac (Gen. We are a monastic community and intentional Orthodox Christian community. John 15:19 You do not belong to the world. Concerning the Church, the Syriac Orthodox Church believes the Church is the body of true believers in Christ, and that the Head of the Church is Our Lord God Jesus Christ. An early Syriac eucharistic liturgy calls upon God as both Father and Mother to … ‘Holy Spirit’ is still treated grammatica lly as feminine, whereas in later texts ruHa, when referring to the Holy Spirit, is regularly treated as a masculine; to bring out this feature the translation of St Ephrem below uses ‘she’ etc. THE MAGI IN SYRIAC TRADITION 815 More non-canonical traditions on the Magi are contained in the Cave of Treasures (MÇÿarrath gazz7), an apocryphon that retraces the historia sacra of the Old Testament and combines it with that of the … Rom. Kateusz cites scholars of the early Syrian church such as Sebastian Brock, who basing their findings on their studies of the ancient baptism liturgy and of the other ch literature of Syriac church during its first four centuries, believe that in this time period the Holy Spirit was almost always envisioned as feminine. This is, in part, because the Syriac word for “spirit” is a “feminine” word. Examples of this early Aramaic literature include the Odes of Solomon, Ephrem (cf., (Hymns on Virginity) and others. The oldest patristic testimonies to this concept are the texts from Origen and Jerome quoted above. The word for ‘spirit’ in Syriac, ruho (which is also the word for ‘wind’), is grammatically feminine. Posted by admin on Mar 27, 2018 in Library | Comments Off on The Holy Spirit as Feminine in Early Syriac Literature / Sebastian Brock Women, Theology and the Christian Tradition, ed. S. Brock, ‘The Holy Spirit as feminine in early Syriac literature,’ [in:] After Eve, ed. (Note. Another distinctive feature in Syriac Christian literature concerns the positive use of feminine images in liturgy and theology. The works of St. Ephraem Syrus (4th century) stood at the beginning of Syrian literature and were never surpassed by any later author.The elegance of his poetry and the beauty of his style earned him the epithet “Harp of the Holy Spirit.” He employed two poetic forms, one for spoken speech in metrical form, whether a narrative or didactic epic, the other a more artful composition in strophes to be sung by a … Often Syriac writers employed images of the Spirit as woman, reflecting a theological inclusiveness in gender that has contributed to contemporary discussions of trinitarian language. We are a multi-cultural and multi-ethnic worshiping … The most notable Syriac poet after the split between eastern and western Syrian Christianity was Narsai (d. c. 503), a … We believe that you can pray to end hunger, but it is not a true prayer unless you also feed those who are hungry. The Holy Spirit as feminine: Early Christian testimonies and their interpretation @article{Oort2016TheHS, title={The Holy Spirit as feminine: Early Christian testimonies and their interpretation}, author={J. Oort}, journal={Hts Teologiese Studies-theological Studies}, year={2016}, volume={72}, pages={6} } J. Oort; Published 2016; Philosophy; Hts Teologiese Studies-theological Studies; This research is part of the … The present article discusses the main proof texts, ranging from the ‘Gospel according to the Hebrews’ to a number of testimonies from the second century. by J. M. Soskice, (Women and Religion Series), London 1990, pp. How did the early Syriac tradition live and express a very essential aspect of Christian Trinitarian faith, namely the … The word for ‘spirit’ in Syriac, ruho (which is also the word for ‘wind’), is grammatically feminine. A Reassessment of a Key Metaphor in the Spiritual Teachings of the 'Macarian Homilies' in the Light of Early Syriac Christian Tradition. The Holy Spirit as Feminine in Early Syriac Literature / Sebastian Brock. The Spiritual World Vision of St Ephrem, Rome, 1985, 143, and idem, The Holy Spirit as Feminine in Early Syriac Literature, in: After Eve. He outlines the history of different translations and notes how the feminine usage changed. Janet Martin Soskice; Women and Religion; London: Collins Marshall Pickering, 1990) 73-88. In After Eve: Women, Theology and the Christian Tradition (ed. What are some stereotypical … 22)." The ancient tradition was, in particular, kept alive in East and West Syria, up to and including the fourth century Makarios and/or Symeon, who even influenced … The Holy Spirit as feminine: Early Christian testimonies and their interpretation . The elegance of his poetry and the beauty of his style earned him the epithet “Harp of the Holy Spirit.” He employed two poetic forms, one for spoken speech in metrical form, whether a narrative or didactic epic, the other a more artful composition in strophes to be sung by a choir or double choir. 142-150.312-330; cf. The earliest Christians – all of whom were Jews – spoke of the Holy Spirit as a feminine figure. 3 In essence, both traditions express the same concept. Holy Spirit is referred to with the feminine pronoun in almost all early Syriac writings, though later writings refer to it in the masculine.) Matt. Summary: The book explores the rich symbolism of the Holy Spirit as a mother bird with hovering wings within early Syriac sacramental … The … The Holy Spirit is equal with the Father and the Son. Plus, realize that early Christians simply did NOT believe that the Holy Spirit was a person and was not referred to as “He.” Nor precisely … Holy Spirit is referred to with the feminine pronoun in almost all early Syriac writings, though later writings refer to it in the masculine.) Concerning the Church, the Syriac Orthodox Church believes the Church is the body of true believers in Christ, and that the Head of the Church is Our Lord God Jesus Christ. Series: ESWTR Studies in Religion, 1. author: Hopkins J.M. What is just as interesting is the way the Spirit is described in the New Testament. Holy Spirit is referred to with the feminine pronoun in almost all early Syriac writings, though later writings refer to it in the masculine.) 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